How to make a walking nxt robot
The great success of robots so far has been in automating repetitive tasks in process control and assembly, yielding dramatic cuts in production, but the next step towards cognition and more human-like behaviour has proved elusive. It has been difficult to make robots that can truly learn and adapt to unexpected situations in the way humans can, while it has been equally challenging trying to develop a machine capable of moving smoothly like any animal.
There is still no robot capable of walking properly without jerky slightly unbalanced movements. Today's robot designers how to make a walking nxt robot have to solve some fundamental problems before robots can become as versatile, independent and useful as the ones we've seen for years in the movies. This kind of robot allows people to hold remote controlled videoconferences from far distances, rather than traveling great distances in order to have face to face meeting.
On the other hand, telepresence is another way of letting the users perceive no difference from the actual presence. This ability to be able to manipulate a remote object or environment is an important aspect of real telepresence systems. In remote controlled telepresence the movements of the user's hands are sensed by wired gloves and inertial sensors, and then a robot in a remote location copies those movements.
The ability to see and manipulate objects in remote locations, particularly hostile ones "dull, dirty and dangerous jobs"remains a key application for mobile robots. In the military, this translates into a multitude of applications. For example, iRobot's PackBots are deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan to scope out who is in a building, ahead of soldiers entering it. Healthcare is also taking advantage of telepresence applications, such as InTouch Health's mobile videoconferencing robots, which let physicians interact remotely with patients in the hospital.
This kind of robot capability is mostly used in warfare. They are used on the battlefield to help soldiers clear out how to make a walking nxt robot, and can also sense if there is danger inside buildings before they enter.
Army is developing robots that can retrieve and carry a wounded solder from a battle site, a very risky task for human soldiers. Vecna Technologies' Battlefield Extraction-Assist Robot BEAR is a prototype robot that can detect people through the use of infrared, pick them up and carry them to safety. The technology could also be used for healthcare and home care applications in the longer term. Navigation could allow the robots to be able to create their own routes to deliver items or scan for assets.
On the other hand, a robot programmed for navigation purposes, for example, might guide people through a museum. Aethon's Tug robots offer a sophisticated navigation capability that lets them download a map of a building such as a hospital and use dead reckoning to how to make a walking nxt robot their way from one location to another.
They can sense objects and obstructions and create a new route on the fly if necessary. Tugs are being used in a number of hospitals to deliver drugs, meals or other supplies. These kinds of robots are autonomous, because they change to their environment while reaching their goal. A fully functioning autonomous robot has the ability to do the following tasks:. Since humanoid robots try to simulate the human structure and behavior they are most how to make a walking nxt robot the time more complex than any other kind of robots.
Humanoid robots are created to imitate some of the physical and mental tasks that humans undergo daily. Scientists from different fields combine efforts so that one day humanoid robots will be able to understand human intelligence reason and act like humans themselves. There is very little U. The heads can talk when someone approaches and maintain eye contact during the conversation.
The programming concept for robots is to describe the desired robot behavior and must be supported by a programming system. These programming systems can be distinguished by both their aim and by their method of programming.
Programming system is typically undertaken by developers before the low or medium level tasks. Level tasks programming is the allocation of tasks by consumers. Robot programming concepts is a sophisticated human-robot interactions techniques programming. The how to make a walking nxt robot must model and reason about the human programmer's intentions and be able to recognize plans presented by human.
Robots systems have special programming demands related to their complex interactions in real environment, their complex sensors, and actuators. These programming demands provide appropriate human-robot programming interactions such as programming languages, tools, and distributed infrastructures.
Robot programming systems have three important conceptual components that include:. The programming system consists of the two main programming methods which are the manual programming and automatic programming. Of the two main programming methods, considerable effort is aimed at improving the PBD system. For example, in automatic programming a robot may pick out important movements and plan on its how to make a walking nxt robot path between points, or execute the key steps in different order.
It is the state-of the art programmable intelligent brick that acts as the brain for robots. The speaker is also on the brick that can play sound files at sampling rates up to how to make a walking nxt robot kHz.
Power is supplied by 6 AA 1. In addition to the NXT intelligent Brick, robot control has the following capabilities:. Probably the biggest problem facing a robot control is the overall system reliability.
A robot might face any combination of the following failure modes:. The robot has no way of checking that the area is free of objects that must be removed and new objects may be dropped in the area; this means that it may look as if the robot is patrolling, searching eagerly for unwanted objects to how to make a walking nxt robot out. The behaviors should be implemented by a kind of servo-mechanism, which we can consider as a principle of performing a selected behavior only in a very short time interval before the sensors are checked again.
You will need to first describe these behaviors in more detail and for each specify under which conditions of trigger readings they are relevant to perform. Specify also an order of importance in which the different behaviors should be activated, when more than one is possible. Mathematics of robot control is a powerful tool for system design and control especially models of system's dynamics. This applies to any system but more specifically on human and humanoid robots. The dynamic control is generally a desirable solution if the dynamics can be calculated so the dynamic effects are important for a particular control problem.
Computation time reduces rapidly with new computers, some dynamic problems like link flexibility are still considered time consuming. Robotics was started from mathematical modeling of robot kinematics and dynamic. Two leg walking was considered with the aim of generating a stable gait, and the arm and hand were modeled in order to how to make a walking nxt robot manipulation. For example, rehabilitation devices appeared to suitable where prostheses were made for leg, arm and hand, and also prostheses for arm and legs, thus resulting in an active exoskeleton.
Some of these multilegged robots were designed while trying to solve the how to make a walking nxt robot on rough terrain. Regarding the mathematical description full kinematic and dynamics were involved from the very beginning of robotics.
In this mathematical modeling of a walking robot, Newton's and Euler's equations were used to describe the mathematical of robot control. Some other mathematics tools are also used, how to make a walking nxt robot example for sensors data acquisition, there are three sequential math sections in robot programming:.
Averages are a useful instrument to soften the differences between single readings and to ignore temporary peaks. They allow you to group a set of readings and consider it as a single value.
When you are dealing with a flow of data coming from a sensor, the moving average is the right tool to process the last n readings. Interpolation is a class of mathematical tools designed to estimate values from known data. The interpolation technique proves useful when you want to estimate the value of a quantity that falls between two known limits.
Linear interpolation draws a straight line across two points in a graph. You then can use that line to calculate any value in the interval. Hysteresis will help you in reducing the number of corrections your robot has to make to keep within a required behavior. By adding some hysteresis to your algorithms, your robot will be less reactive to how to make a walking nxt robot. Hysteresis can also increase the efficiency of your system. This sample program demonstrates hysteresis.
The program plays tones to ask you to turn left or right. The development of modern robot programming languages started in the mid '70s. These programming languages represent some of the early robot programming languages which had sophisticated data structures.
There is no single robot programming language available, allowing flexible specifications of functional interdependences of path properties. The choice how to make a walking nxt robot which language to choose depends on following few points:. Text based programming is common in industry where simple robot languages are used, they are typically provided by the robot developer.
With the development of technology nowadays, text based system has diverged from these robot languages to develop more general purposed in higher level programming languages that are suitable for any robot.
The NXC is not a general purpose programming language there are many restrictions that stem from limitations of the NXT bytecode interpreter. All Application Programming Interface are defined in a special file known as the "header file" which is automatically included when compiling a program.
Similarly how to make a walking nxt robot "if" statement begins with the keyword "if" but "IF", "If", or "IF" are all just identifiers. NXC also uses lexical rules to describe how sources file break into individual tokens. This basically includes the way comments are written and valid characters for identifiers. Obstacle avoidance is one of the most important aspects of the robotics world. Without having a way to avoid obstacles, robots would be very limited in what they could do, especially those that rely on a program that requires them to navigate around or to a specific location.
For instance, if a robot was programmed to move from point A to point B and had no way of detecting obstacles so that it can avoid it, that robot would not be able to get to its location if the path to the designated location was not a straight line with no obstacles in its way. The robot will eventually run into an obstacle and will continue to try to move against it because it could not detect the obstacle in its path. With a way to avoid obstacles, how to make a walking nxt robot would have a better navigations system and be able to traverse obstacles with ease.
Detectors such as touch or light sensors help how to make a walking nxt robot to detect obstacles. Through the use of programs, the robot can be directed to move in a number of ways around the obstacle to avoid it once it is detected.
The robot could be programmed to reverse and then turn to find a different path or simply turn left or right as soon as the obstacle is detected. Using the light sensor, the robot can detect lines on the floor that it can either avoid or can be programmed to follow. The line can be laid out in a path and once the robot picks up the dark line, it can be programmed to follow it without leaving its path. Task planning and navigation refers to the programming of the robot and how it goes about performing its assigned tasks and how it is able to navigate itself around its environment and be able to avoid obstacles to avoid collisions to be able to continue to function properly.
The navigations system of the robot is very important. If a robot is not able to move around in its environment with ease and avoid obstacles then it will not be able to complete its task properly.
Task planning is also important as it lays out the order in which a robot will complete its tasks.